Background: There are limited treatment options for patients with Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), especially when front line therapy has failed. Tolinapant (ASTX660) is a novel oral nonpeptidomimetic, small-molecule antagonist of cellular/X-linked inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (cIAP1/2 and XIAP), which also induces necroptosis in T-cell lymphoma models (Ferrari et al., Blood Advances, 2021). Tolinapant is being evaluated in a first-in-human ongoing Phase I/II study in subjects with advanced solid tumors and lymphoma (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02503423). Phase I results were previously reported (Mita et al. Clin Cancer Res, 2020) and the recommended phase 2 dosing (RP2D) was established. Initial results for Phase II were previously reported at EHA 2019 (Mehta et al., EHA 2019, # PS1073).
Aims: Here we report the preliminary efficacy and safety analysis for the Phase 2 PTCL and CTCL cohorts.
Methods: Methods: This is a single-arm open-label Phase II study. To be eligible, subjects must have evidence of documented progressive disease and received at least two prior systemic therapies. Subjects received treatment with tolinapant at the RP2D 180 mg/day on Days 1 to 7, and 15 to 22 in a 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint is best overall response rate (ORR) as assessed by the investigator according to either the Lugano criteria (PTCL) or Global Assessment (CTCL). Adverse events (AEs) are assessed per CTCAE v4.03. The efficacy data set is based on subjects who had tumor evaluation at baseline and at least 1 post-treatment tumor evaluation visit, unless they died or stopped treatment earlier due to clinical progression or toxicity. The safety data set is based on all subjects that received at least one dose of tolinapant.
Results: Results: As of the data cut of January 5, 2022, there were 98 subjects with PTCL and 51 subjects with CTCL that received drug and 98 and 50 subjects that were evaluable respectively. The study is currently closed to enrollment with a minimum of 6 months follow-up on all subjects at the time of the data cut. Subject characteristics: median (range) age PTCL 62.5 (27, 82) and CTCL 62 (24,87), median number of previous therapies PTCL 3 (0-8) and CTCL 6 (1-10). Among all subjects, the most common related AEs of any grade (≥ 15%) were: lipase elevation (35%), amylase elevation (25%), rash (combined listings) (24%), ALT elevation (15%), and AST elevation (15%). Related AEs ≥ Grade 3 (≥ 5%) were: lipase elevation (15%), rash (combined listings) (9%), and amylase elevation (7%). Pancreatitis was identified in 2 subjects (1%) (both Grade 4). There were no related ≥ Grade 3 AEs for diarrhea, nausea or vomiting; for related Grade 2 AEs there was a 5% incidence of diarrhea and 1% incidence of nausea/vomiting.
The ORR for PTCL is 22%, including 9 complete responses (CRs) and 12 partial responses (PRs). The ORR in CTCL is 26% including 2 CRs and 11 PRs. The median durability of response for PTCL is 133 (Q1-Q3; 69 – 280) days and for CTCL is 148 (Q1-Q3; 103 – 294) days. Pharmacodynamic and correlative analysis is ongoing with preliminary analysis suggesting an immunomodulatory antitumoral effect of tolinapant (Ferrari et al., Blood Advances, 2021).
Summary/Conclusion: In this Phase II study, the novel oral agent tolinapant has shown meaningful clinical activity against PTCL and CTCL with a manageable safety profile. These results support the continued development of tolinapant for the treatment of R/R PTCL and CTCL. A drug combination study using tolinapant in R/R PTCL is being developed.