Savona et al., An oral fixed-dose combination of decitabine and cedazuridine in myelodysplastic syndromes: a multicentre, open-label, dose-escalation, phase 1 study

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Savona et al, “Savona et al., An oral fixed-dose combination of decitabine and cedazuridine in myelodysplastic syndromes: a multicentre, open-label, dose-escalation, phase 1 study”, The Lancet Haematology, Volume 6, Issue 4, e194 – e203  DOI:10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30030-4

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Decitabine, a DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor or DNA hypomethylating compound, is not readily orally bioavailable because of rapid clearance by cytidine deaminase (CDA) in the gut and liver. This dose-escalation study, guided by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic observations, evaluated whether simultaneous oral administration with the novel CDA inhibitor cedazuridine increases decitabine bioavailability for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes.METHODS:

In this phase 1 study, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with myelodysplastic syndromes or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Eligible patients were assigned to cohorts to receive escalating oral doses of decitabine and cedazuridine. The starting dose was decitabine 20 mg and cedazuridine 40 mg. Treatment cycles lasted 28 days, with 5 days of drug administration. In cycle 1, each patient received a cohort-defined dose of oral decitabine on day -3, a 1-h intravenous infusion of decitabine 20 mg/m2 on day 1, and cohort-defined doses of oral decitabine plus cedazuridine on days 2-5. In cycles 2 and beyond, the oral decitabine and cedazuridine were given on days 1-5. The dose of cedazuridine was escalated first and decitabine was escalated once CDA inhibition by cedazuridine approached the maximum effect. The drug dose was escalated if mean decitabine area under the curve (AUC) of the oral drug was less than 90% of that for intravenous decitabine in the cohort and if no dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as a grade 3 or greater non-haematologic toxicity or grade 4 haematologic toxicity lasting more than 14 days and unrelated to the underlying disease. Once the decitabine AUC target range set as the primary endpoint, and established with intravenous decitabine, was reached at a dose deemed to be safe, the cohort that most closely approximated intravenous decitabine exposure was expanded to 18 evaluable patients. The primary objectives were to assess the safety of decitabine plus cedazuridine, and to determine the dose of each drug needed to achieve a mean AUC for decitabine exposure similar to that for intravenous decitabine exposure. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02103478.

FINDINGS:

Between Oct 28, 2014, and Nov 13, 2015, we enrolled 44 eligible patients (of 75 screened) with previously treated or newly diagnosed myelodysplastic syndromes or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia; 43 of the enrolled patients were evaluable. Participants were treated in five cohorts: cohorts 1-4 included six evaluable patients each; cohort 5 included 19 patients in a 13-patient expansion. Dose-dependent increases in decitabine AUC and peak plasma concentration occurred with each cohort dose escalation. There was no evident increase in toxicity compared with that reported for intravenous decitabine. Decitabine 30 mg and 40 mg plus cedazuridine 100 mg produced mean day-5 decitabine AUCs (146 ng × h/mL for decitabine 30 mg, and 221 ng × h/mL for decitabine 40 mg) closest to the mean intravenous-decitabine AUC (164 ng × h/mL). The most common grade 3 or more adverse events were thrombocytopenia (18 [41%] of 44 patients), neutropenia (13 [30%]), anaemia (11 [25%]), leukopenia (seven [16%]), febrile neutropenia (seven [16%]), and pneumonia (seven [16%]). Four (9%) patients died because of adverse events, none of which was considered drug related, and three (7%) patients died more than 30 days after discontinuing treatment because of progressive disease (two [5%]) and respiratory failure (one [2%]).

INTERPRETATION:

Oral decitabine plus cedazuridine emulated the pharmacokinetics of intravenous decitabine, with a similar safety profile and dose-dependent demethylation. Clinical responses were similar to intravenous decitabine treatment for 5 days. Further study of decitabine plus cedazuridine as an alternative to parenteral therapy or in combination with other new oral agents for myeloid disorders is warranted.

 

de Witte, Effective oral hypomethylating drugs in intermediate-risk or high-risk myelodysplasia: a breakthrough?

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“Effective oral hypomethylating drugs in intermediate-risk or high-risk myelodysplasia: a breakthrough?” The Lancet Haematology, Volume 6, Issue 4, PE170-E171, DOI 10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30025-0•

 

Curative treatment options for patients with intermediate-risk or high-risk myelodysplasia are intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but most patients with myelodysplasia are too frail to be treated with these demanding interventions because of advanced age and comorbidities. Alternative treatment approaches are either ineffective or result in short response durations with little survival benefit.

 

 

2019 ICTXV: Nonclinical Development of Cedazuridine, a Novel Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor for use in Combination with Decitabine to Enable Oral Administration to Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

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Nonclinical Development of Cedazuridine, a Novel Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor for use in Combination with Decitabine to Enable Oral Administration to Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

Abstract:

Cedazuridine (E7727) is a synthetic nucleoside analog derived from tetrahydrouridine (THU) and designed as a potent inhibitor of cytidine deaminase (CDA) with improved stability over THU. It is currently being developed in combination with hypomethylating agent decitabine (ASTX727) as an oral option for treatment of MDS and CMML. Concomitant administration of cedazuridine enhances oral bioavailability of decitabine and achieves therapeutic AUC exposures in the clinic at low doses of decitabine (similar to IV dose, in mg) that are well tolerated.

Nonclinical development of cedazuridine included full toxicological and DMPK evaluation. Cedazuridine is well tolerated in mice and monkeys (tox species) over 1-cycle of 7 days dosing, (followed by recovery), with NOAEL at 1000 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Subchronic studies of 13-weeks duration with multi-cycles (28 days/cycle with dosing on days 1-7) resulted in NOAEL of 100/300 mg/kg in mice (females/males) and 60 mg/kg in cynomolgus monkeys. The highest non-severely toxic dose (HNSTD) in multi-cycle study was 200 mg/kg/dose in monkeys. Target organs at the NOAEL were lymph nodes in mice and GI mucosa and bone marrow (RBC parameters) in monkeys. These dose levels offer a large safety margin over the clinical dose (and systemic exposures) used for cedazuridine (100 mg fixed dose, in combination with 35 mg decitabine). Cedazuridine in mouse in vivo micronucleus study was negative at up to 2000 mg/kg and was negative in in vitro Ames and chromosome aberration tests at concentrations that were not cytotoxic.

Co-administration with decitabine in mice and monkeys resulted in significant increase in systemic exposures compared with decitabine administered alone. Cedazuridine is metabolically stable in liver microsomes and hepatocytes, does not inhibit major human CYP enzymes, and is not a substrate and/or inhibitor of major human drug transporters. It does not accumulate in tissues and is excreted mainly renally. The main metabolite was its epimer, to which it partially converts in acidic environment in the stomach prior to absorption.

In summary, cedazuridine has been well characterized in nonclinical toxicology and DMPK studies and its nonclinical data profile supports late-stage clinical development.

2018 EBF: Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of cedazuridine (E7727), epimer of cedazuridine and decitabine in THU-stabilized K2EDTA human Plasma

Summary

Abstract:

Cedazuridine is a novel cytidine deaminase inhibitor that inhibits the in vivo metabolic degradation of decitabine when administered orally in combination with decitabine (known as ASTX727) in clinical trials. Cedazuridine inhibits degradation of decitabine by inhibiting cytidine deaminase in the gut and liver thereby increasing oral bioavailability of decitabine. To support clinical trial pharmacokinetic studies for ASTX727, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of decitabine and cedazuridine, as well as the epimer of cedazuridine, in human plasma was developed and validated. Decitabine is known for its instability in human plasma over time as well as a previously observed chromatographic interference in certain subjects that was inseparable using reverse-phase chromatography. To stabilize decitabine, tetrahydrouridine (THU) was mixed with the human plasma samples. Chromatographic interference was resolved using normal phase chromatography. In-house synthesized stable-label internal standards for all three analytes were employed to ensure assay robustness. Stability of cedazuridine and cedazuridine-epimer were carefully evaluated and extensive experiments were conducted to ensure no inter-conversion occurs. As a result, a 3-in-1 method (single sample extraction) for the quantitation of cedazuridine, cedazuridine epimer and decitabine has been developed and fully validated. Protein precipitation (PPT) was used to extract all analytes from THU-stabilized human plasma samples. The analytes were separated on two different HPLC columns (reverse phase for cedazuridine and cedazuridine epimer and normal phase for decitabine). The method has been applied for clinical studies to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cedazuridine, cedazuridine-epimer and decitabine in human.

 

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2018 ASTX727 Poster presented at EBF

2019 MDSF: Development of an oral hypomethylating agent (HMA) as a fixed dose combination (FDC) of decitabine and CDA inhibitor cedazuridine

Summary:

Background: Hypomethylating agents azacitidine and decitabine are not readily bioavailable orally due to their degradation in the gut and liver by CDA. We developed a selective, potent, and safe CDA inhibitor cedazuridine. The combination of cedazuridine with decitabine delivered orally as an FDC tablet is developed to achieve an equivalent AUC exposure to IV decitabine.

Methods: A phase 1-2 study was conducted in 124 patients eligible to receive IV decitabine. The phase 1 dose escalation (n=44 patients) established a recommended dose for both oral decitabine (35 mg), and cedazuridine (100 mg) likely to achieve a decitabine AUC exposure equivalent to decitabine IV at 20 mg/m2. The phase 2 (n=80 patients) was conducted using a randomized cross-over design comparing IV decitabine to oral ASTX727 to confirm intra-patient decitabine AUC exposure equivalence between standard IV decitabine and the selected ASTX727 FDC doses (35/100 mg decitabine/cedazuridine).

Results: In the phase 2 patients were randomized to either decitabine IV 20 mg/m2/d x5 or oral ASTX727 (decitabine/cedazuridine 35/100 mg/d) x5 Q 28 days in Cycle 1 and crossed over to the other arm in Cycle 2. All patients continued to receive oral ASTX727 from Cycle 3 onwards until progression or treatment discontinuation for other reasons. The median age was 69.7 years, median weight was 82.7 Kg (range 40-122), and median BSA was 1.99 m2 (range 1.3-2.4). The MDS-IPSS status of the patients was Int-1 in 44%, Int-2 in 24%, and HR in 11%, with 21% having CMML. No differences were observed between the 2 randomized arms. The decitabine AUC0-t (h*ng/mL) 5-Day geometric mean estimate was 745 from decitabine IV and 727 from the oral FDC tablet resulting in an oral/IV AUC ratio of 97.6% (80% CI of 80, 118%). Hypomethylating activity as measured by LINE-1 demethylation, and safety were comparable between decitabine IV and oral ASTX727 in the first 2 randomized cycles. Of note is the absence of grade 3 or higher GI AEs related to ASTX727. Overall response rate in the phase 2 population was 65% including 18% CR by the IWG 2006 MDS response criteria

Conclusions: ASTX727 FDC oral tablet at the selected doses (35/100 mg decitabine/cedazuridine) with no body weight or BSA adjustment achieved an equivalent decitabine AUC exposure to IV decitabine 20 mg/m2 over the 5-day cycle. LINE-1 demethylation and safety in the 2 randomized cycles were comparable and overall response rate was consistent with expected decitabine IV clinical response

 

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2019_ASTX727_Poster_MDSF_abst_MDSF19-0166_Garcia-Manero-Final

Ferraris et al., “Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of Fluorinated Tetrahydrouridine Derivatives as Inhibitors of Cytidine Deaminase.” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2014

Abstract:

Several 2′-fluorinated tetrahydrouridine derivatives were synthesized as inhibitors of cytidine deaminase (CDA). (4R)-2′-Deoxy-2′,2′-difluoro-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrouridine (7a) showed enhanced acid stability over tetrahydrouridine (THU) 5 at its N-glycosyl bond. As a result, compound 7a showed an improved oral pharmacokinetic profile with a higher and more reproducible plasma exposure in rhesus monkeys compared to 5. Co-administration of 7a with decitabine, a CDA substrate, boosted the plasma levels of decitabine in rhesus monkeys. These results demonstrate that compound 7a can serve as an acid-stable alternative to 5 as a pharmacoenhancer of drugs subject to CDA-mediated metabolism.

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Ferraris et al., “Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of Fluorinated Tetrahydrouridine Derivatives as Inhibitors of Cytidine Deaminase.” J.MedChem. ,2014, 57 (6), pp 2582–2588 DOI: 10.1021/jm401856k

 

 

2017 ASH: A Phase 2 Dose-Confirmation Study of Oral ASTX727, a Combination of Oral Decitabine with a Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor (CDAi) Cedazuridine (E7727), in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

Summary

An oral hypomethylating agent which could be administered at a dose which would emulate parenteral pharmacokinetics would be more convenient and potentially enhance adherence to treatment. Heretofore, rapid clearance by cytidine deaminase (CDA) during first pass has prevented good oral bioavailability for decitabine (DAC). Cedazuridine (E7727), a novel CDAi, is orally bioavailable with a large safety margin and reproducible effectiveness in preclinical models. A phase I dose finding study found that a fixed oral combination of 35 mg of decitabine and 100 mg of E7727 (ASTX727 with 35 mg decitabine/100 mg cedazuridine (ASTX727 35/100 mg) should produce similar PK to decitabine administered intravenously at 20 mg/m2 as a 1-hour infusion.3 We tested this hypothesis in a phase 2 cross-over study, and report the preliminary results here.

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A Phase 2 Dose-Confirmation Study of Oral ASTX727, a Combination of Oral Decitabine with a Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor (CDAi) Cedazuridine (E7727), in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

2017 ACOP8: Evaluation of Potential Doses and Regimens of an Oral Fixed Dose Combination of Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor E7727 with Decitabine (ASTX727) to Minimize Decitabine-Mediated Neutropenia in Low-Risk MDS Subjects Using Systems Pharmacology Modeling

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Evaluation  of Potential Doses and Regimens of an Oral Fixed Dose Combination of Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor E7727 with Decitabine (ASTX727) to Minimize Decitabine-Mediated Neutropenia in Low-Risk MDS Subjects Using Systems Pharmacology Modeling

Objectives: To simulate the effect of decitabine on neutrophils for optimization of dose and regimen(s) of an Oral Fixed-Dose Combination (ASTX727 Low Dose) of Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor E7727 with Decitabine for treatment of subjects with Low-Risk myelodisplastic syndromes.

Methods: A quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) model was previously developed describing myeloblasts cell cycle; leukemic blasts, neutrophils and platelets in physiological compartments (bone marrow and blood); PK of decitabine after IV infusion, after dosing with SQ guadecitabine (SGI-110) (dinucleotide of decitabine linked to deoxyguanosine) and oral ASTX727; LINE-1 demethylation; effect of decitabine on leukemic cells, neutrophils and platelets. Model parameters were identified against in vitro and clinical data. The effect of decitabine on neutrophils was calibrated against clinical data on neutrophil counts during treatment of AML patients with guadecitabine. The model was validated against clinical data on blast dynamics in blood and bone marrow of AML patients during treatment with guadecitabine.

Results: The model was succesfully calibrated and validated against various types of data. It succesfully reproduces clinical data on neutrophil count changes during treatment with guadecitabine. Simulations with different doses and regimens of low-dose ASTX727 administration were performed and the model predicts that neutrophil levels depend on dose and frequency of ASTX727.

2017 EHA: DOSE-CONFIRMATION STUDY OF ORAL ASTX727, A COMBINATION OF ORAL DECITABINE WITH A CYTIDINE DEAMINASE INHIBITOR (CDAI) E7727, IN SUBJECTS WITH MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES (MDS): PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Summary
An oral hypomethylatingagent which could be administered in a dose which would emulate parenteral pharmacokinetics would be more convenient and potentially enhance adherence to treatment. Heretofore, rapid clearance by cytidine deaminase (CDA) during first pass has prevented oral administration.1E7727, a novel CDAi, is orally bioavailable with a large safety margin and reproducible effectiveness in preclinical models.2A phase I dose finding study found that a fixed oral combination of 35 mg of decitabine and 100 mg of E7727 (ASTX727) should produce similar pharmacokinetics (PK) to decitabineadministered intravenously at 20 mg/m2 as a 1-hour infusion (DAC IV).3We tested this hypothesis in a randomized cross-over study of DAC IV vs ASTX727 and report the preliminary results here.

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2017 ASCPT: Development of a Semi-Mechanistic PK/PD Model of an Oral Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) of Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor E7727 with Decitabine (ASTX727) in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Summary

ASTX727 is an oral Fixed Dose Combination of a novel and potent oral CDA inhibitor, E7727 with decitabine for the treatment of patients with MDS. Decitabine is an approved IV treatment of MDS that is rapidly degraded by cytidine deaminase resulting in poor and variable oral bioavailability. Low doses of oral decitabine co-administered with E7727 were shown to produce exposures similar to IV decitabine with acceptable inter-patient variability.

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2017 ASCPT: Development of a Semi-Mechanistic PK/PD Model of an Oral Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) of Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor E7727 with Decitabine (ASTX727) in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes