Ferraris et al., “Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of Fluorinated Tetrahydrouridine Derivatives as Inhibitors of Cytidine Deaminase.” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2014

Abstract:

Several 2′-fluorinated tetrahydrouridine derivatives were synthesized as inhibitors of cytidine deaminase (CDA). (4R)-2′-Deoxy-2′,2′-difluoro-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrouridine (7a) showed enhanced acid stability over tetrahydrouridine (THU) 5 at its N-glycosyl bond. As a result, compound 7a showed an improved oral pharmacokinetic profile with a higher and more reproducible plasma exposure in rhesus monkeys compared to 5. Co-administration of 7a with decitabine, a CDA substrate, boosted the plasma levels of decitabine in rhesus monkeys. These results demonstrate that compound 7a can serve as an acid-stable alternative to 5 as a pharmacoenhancer of drugs subject to CDA-mediated metabolism.

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Ferraris et al., “Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of Fluorinated Tetrahydrouridine Derivatives as Inhibitors of Cytidine Deaminase.” J.MedChem. ,2014, 57 (6), pp 2582–2588 DOI: 10.1021/jm401856k

 

 

2017 ASH: A Phase 2 Dose-Confirmation Study of Oral ASTX727, a Combination of Oral Decitabine with a Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor (CDAi) Cedazuridine (E7727), in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

Summary

An oral hypomethylating agent which could be administered at a dose which would emulate parenteral pharmacokinetics would be more convenient and potentially enhance adherence to treatment. Heretofore, rapid clearance by cytidine deaminase (CDA) during first pass has prevented good oral bioavailability for decitabine (DAC). Cedazuridine (E7727), a novel CDAi, is orally bioavailable with a large safety margin and reproducible effectiveness in preclinical models. A phase I dose finding study found that a fixed oral combination of 35 mg of decitabine and 100 mg of E7727 (ASTX727 with 35 mg decitabine/100 mg cedazuridine (ASTX727 35/100 mg) should produce similar PK to decitabine administered intravenously at 20 mg/m2 as a 1-hour infusion.3 We tested this hypothesis in a phase 2 cross-over study, and report the preliminary results here.

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A Phase 2 Dose-Confirmation Study of Oral ASTX727, a Combination of Oral Decitabine with a Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor (CDAi) Cedazuridine (E7727), in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

2017 EHA: DOSE-CONFIRMATION STUDY OF ORAL ASTX727, A COMBINATION OF ORAL DECITABINE WITH A CYTIDINE DEAMINASE INHIBITOR (CDAI) E7727, IN SUBJECTS WITH MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES (MDS): PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Summary
An oral hypomethylatingagent which could be administered in a dose which would emulate parenteral pharmacokinetics would be more convenient and potentially enhance adherence to treatment. Heretofore, rapid clearance by cytidine deaminase (CDA) during first pass has prevented oral administration.1E7727, a novel CDAi, is orally bioavailable with a large safety margin and reproducible effectiveness in preclinical models.2A phase I dose finding study found that a fixed oral combination of 35 mg of decitabine and 100 mg of E7727 (ASTX727) should produce similar pharmacokinetics (PK) to decitabineadministered intravenously at 20 mg/m2 as a 1-hour infusion (DAC IV).3We tested this hypothesis in a randomized cross-over study of DAC IV vs ASTX727 and report the preliminary results here.

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ASTX727_Poster_EHA_abst-E1192_Garcia-Manero_final.pdf

2017 ASCPT: Development of a Semi-Mechanistic PK/PD Model of an Oral Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) of Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor E7727 with Decitabine (ASTX727) in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Summary

ASTX727 is an oral Fixed Dose Combination of a novel and potent oral CDA inhibitor, E7727 with decitabine for the treatment of patients with MDS. Decitabine is an approved IV treatment of MDS that is rapidly degraded by cytidine deaminase resulting in poor and variable oral bioavailability. Low doses of oral decitabine co-administered with E7727 were shown to produce exposures similar to IV decitabine with acceptable inter-patient variability.

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2017 ASCPT: Development of a Semi-Mechanistic PK/PD Model of an Oral Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) of Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor E7727 with Decitabine (ASTX727) in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2016 ASH: Successful Emulation of IV Decitabine Pharmacokinetics with an Oral Fixed-Dose Combination of the Oral Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor (CDAi) E7727 with Oral Decitabine, in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS): Final Data of Phase 1 Study

Summary

Patients with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) intermediate 1 and 2 (Int) and high risk (HR) MOS benefit from therapy with hypomethylating agents (HMAs) decitabine (DAC) and azacitidine (AZA). Treatment requires 5 or 7 daily parenteral doses every month while the patient is benefitting. An oral HMA taken at home would provide patient convenience, and potentially enhance adherence to treatment particularly for long-term responders. Neither DAC nor AZA is readily bioavailable in oral form due to rapid clearance by cytidine deaminase (CDA) present in the gut and liver. E7727, a novel CDAi, is orally bioavailable with a large safety margin in preclinical models. We report here the final results of a Phase 1 study including an extension arm of a PK-guided first in human dose escalation trial of ASTX727 (the combination of oral DAC and E7727).

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2016 ASH: Successful Emulation of IV Decitabine Pharmacokinetics with an Oral Fixed-Dose Combination of the Oral Cytidine Deaminase Inhibitor (CDAi) E7727 with Oral Decitabine, in Subjects with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS): Final Data of Phase 1 Study

2016 EHA: Phase 1 dose-escalation study of ASTX727: comparable variability in pharmacokinetics

Summary

Hypomethylating agents (HMA) are typically administered parenterally and adjusted to body surface area (BSA) in order to achieve target pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters associated with response. Much of the variation associated with administration of HMAs is related to the intrinsic activity of cytidine deaminase (CDA) an enzyme which rapidly metabolizes HMAs and is highest in the gut and liver. We report here intra-and inter-patient pharmacokinetic variation in patients from a study aiming to match PK parameters of BSA adjusted dosing with IV decitabine (DAC) with a novel fixed-dose oral combination (ASTX727), of DAC and E7727, a CDA inhibitor. Preliminary safety and clinical activity were previously reported and are updated here.

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EHA: Phase 1 dose-escalation study of ASTX727: comparable variability in pharmacokinetics

2015 ASH: Results of FIH P1 PK Guided Dose-Escalation Study of ASTX727 in Subjects with MDS

Summary

Treatment of MDS patients with parenteral hypomethylating agents (HMA) such as decitabine (DAC) requires frequent visits to the physician. An orally administered HMA would provide significant patient convenience, potentially enhance adherence to treatment, and permit the exploration of extended treatment schedules with lower doses of DAC. Neither DAC nor azacitidine is readily bioavailable in oral form due to rapid clearance by cytidine deaminase (CDA) present in the gut and liver. E7727, a novel CDAi, is orally bioavailable with a large safety margin and reproducible effectiveness in preclinical models. We report here the first in human Phase 1 results of a PK-guided dose escalation trial of ASTX727 (the orally administered combination of DAC
and E7727).

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2015 ASH: Results of FIH P1 PK Guided Dose-Escalation Study of ASTX727 in Subjects with MDS

2013 ASH: Preclin Data in Cynomologus Monkeys of ASTX727, an oral HMA composed of decitabine & E7727

2013 ASH: Preclin Data in Cynomologus Monkeys of ASTX727, an oral HMA composed of decitabine & E7727