Aim: Confirm fixed dose combination (FDC) of oral decitabine/cedazuridine produces similar clinical activity vs. IV decitabine. Background: An oral FDC of 35 mg decitabine and 100 mg of CDA inhibitor cedazuridine has shown 99% (90% CI 93% to 106%) equivalent exposure to 20 mg/m2 IV decitabine in a randomized cross-over study(1). If oral decitabine/cedazuridine treatment produces similar clinical results its use may decrease the burden associated with chronic parenteral hypomethylating agent (HMA) therapy in MDS and CMML.
Methods: Randomized cross over design: 133 subjects treated in US or Canada.
Primary PK endpoint: decitabine AUC equivalence over 5 days of dosing. Efficacy endpoints: best response per IWG 2006, transfusion independence, OS, and safety. AEs were graded by CTCAE v 4.03.
Results: Patient Characteristics: median age 71.0 years; 65% male; 88%MDS/12%CMML; 43% either RBC or platelet baseline transfusion-dependent; 25% poor-risk cytogenetics, and 42% baseline BM blasts >5%. Best Response: CR in 29/133 patients (22%), mCR with HI:17% (without HI 16%), and HI: 7.5%, for an overall objective response (CR+mCR+HI) of 62%; 26% proceeded to transplant. With median follow up of 24.7 months, median OS had not been reached. Treatment-Emergent AEs (Grade ≥3 regardless of causality): thrombocytopenia (61%), neutropenia (58%), anemia (51%), febrile neutropenia (32%), leukopenia (25%), and pneumonia (18%), of patients treated with oral decitabine/cedazuridine (excluding IV decitabine cycle).
Conclusion: Efficacy and safety from oral decitabine 35 mg/ cedazuridine 100 mg daily for 5 days every 28 days are consistent with historical clinical data from standard IV decitabine 20 mg/m2 daily for 5 days. Oral decitabine/cedazuridine is the only oral HMA with systemic exposure equivalent to its injectable drug. Further investigation of oral decitabine/cedazuridine in all-oral combination studies is warranted and underway.
References: Garcia-Manero, et al, Blood 2019; 134 (Supplement_1): 846. doi: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2019-122980