Background and aims
DNMTi are active in MDS treatment, however chronic parenteral therapy constitutes a burden for these patients, often elderly with co-morbid conditions. Oral decitabine(35 mg)/cedazuridine(100mg) given Days 1-5 every 28 days produces equivalent pharmacokinetic exposure (AUV) to 20 mg/m2 IV decitabine dosing (Garcia-Manero, ASH 2019).
This randomized, cross-over study enrolled MDS/CMML subjects appropriate to receive IV decitabine per the US label. Subjects either received IV decitabine or oral decitabine/cedazuridine, followed by the converse in C2, allowing intrapatient PK comparison. All subjects received oral decitabine/cedazuridine for subsequent cycles providing longer term safety and efficacy data.
133 patients (IPSS HR: 16%, Int-1: 48%, Int-2: 20%, LR:4%, CMML:12%) were enrolled (US and Canada). The median age was 71y; 65% Male; 41% RBC and 9% platelet transfusion dependent, respectively. Subjects received a median of 9 cycles of treatment and 26% proceeded to HCT, typically after 4-6 cycles. The most common adverse events of thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia were consistent with expected AEs with parenteral DNMTi. Complete Response(CR) was achieved in 22%(95% CI 15.1,29.8), and overall response (CR + Partial Response + marrow CR + Hematologic Improvement) of 62% (95% CI 52.8, 69.9) was similar to seen with parenteral DNMTi. K-M estimated mOS was 31.7 months.
Oral decitabine/cedazuridine is the only DNMTi demonstrating equivalent pharmacokinetic exposure to its IV form, and led to expected equivalent responses, with mOS of 31.7mo in this study. Additional studies using oral decitabine/cedazuridine in combination with new oral agents for hematological disease are warranted.